March 28, 2022

Toolkit Executive Summary

Download the Executive Summary for a high-level overview of the solutions provided in the full Toolkit and Guidance for the Interconnection of Energy Storage and Solar-Plus-Storage.

Energy storage systems (storage or ESS) are crucial to enabling the transition to a clean energy economy and a low-carbon grid. Storage is unique from other types of distributed energy resources (DERs) in several respects that present both challenges and opportunities in how storage systems are interconnected and operated. Although many jurisdictions are taking steps toward integrating storage, substantial technical and regulatory barriers remain to the rapid integration of ESS onto the grid, including and especially related to interconnection.

In response to the need for solutions, the Building a Technically Reliable Interconnection Evolution for Storage (BATRIES) project provides recommendations and best practices for eight critical storage interconnection challenges. The BATRIES project team selected the barriers to address through a stakeholder engagement process that included the input of utilities, DER developers, public service commission regulatory staff, smart inverter manufacturers, and others. The storage interconnection barriers addressed in the Toolkit and Guidance for the Interconnection of Energy Storage and Solar-Plus-Storage (Toolkit) include:

  • Lack of inclusion of storage in interconnection rules, and the lack of clarity as to whether and how existing interconnection rules (and related documents, such as application forms and agreements) apply to storage systems (addressed in Chapter II)
  • Lack of inclusion of acceptable methods that can be used for controlling export of limited-and non-export systems in interconnection rules (addressed in Chapter III)
  • Evaluation of non- and limited-export systems based on unrealistic operating assumptions that lead to overestimated grid impacts (addressed in Chapter IV)
  • Lack of clarity regarding the impacts of inadvertent export from limited- and non-export systems and the lack of a uniform specification for export control equipment response times to address inadvertent export (addressed in Chapter V)
  • Lack of information about the distribution grid and its constraints that can inform where and how to interconnect storage (addressed in Chapter VI)
  • Lack of ability to make system design changes to address grid impacts and avoid upgrades during the interconnection review process (addressed in Chapter VII)
  • States that have not incorporated updated standards into their interconnection procedures and technical requirements (addressed in Chapter VIII)
  • Lack of defined rules and processes for the evaluation of operating schedules (Chapter IX)

The Executive Summary provides a high-level overview of each chapter in the BATRIES Toolkit and summarizes the recommendations in each chapter. You can read the majority of the Executive Summary, and download the Executive Summary without completing a form, here.

Completing the form at right will add you to our email list to receive updates about this project, in addition to providing you with the Executive Summary file.

This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) under the Solar Energy and Technologies Office Award Number DE-EE0009002.0001. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.